Dr. T. logoBIO 100 General Biology I
Announcements and Assignments


Welcome to BIO 100 -

To returning students - welcome back to campus! To new students - welcome to Delta State! And - welcome to General Biology! I hope you will find this an enjoyable and useful course. Good luck in all your classes this term and especially in BIO 100.

During the first class meeting, we will discuss in detail everything you need to know about the workings of the course, but there are a few things you should know before the semester begins if you happen to see this message ahead of time. The most important thing is to make sure that this course is really the right one to take for your major. Please read the following information carefully. If you have any questions before the semester begins, please ask. You can contact me by phone or email. My contact information is on the my home page.

The Department of Biological Sciences offers two introductory biology courses: Principles of Biology (BIO 100/101), which is for science majors and other students who need a "majors-level" biology course, and Biology and Human Concerns (BIO 110), which is for non-science majors who are just fulfilling the general education science requirement. BIO 100 is the majors-level course. If you are NOT required to take majors-level biology, you should probably switch to BIO 110.

The programs that require MAJORS biology are:

DSU majors:
Biology (all concentrations)
Chemistry (premedical science concentration)
Chemistry (chemistry education concentration)
Environmental Science (all concentrations)
Family and Consumer Sciences (nutrition/dietetics concentration)

All pre-health professions programs including:
Pre-medical
Pre-dental
Pre-medical laboratory science
Pre-dental hygiene
Pre-occupational therapy
Pre-optometry
Pre-pharmacy
Pre-physical therapy
Pre-radiologic sciences
Pre-veterinary medicine
Pre-nursing

BIO 100 is also required for the biology minor.

If you are in any other degree program, BIO 100 is probably not right for you. BIO 100 is a more rigorous course than BIO 110, and non-majors usually find it much more difficult. We have seen many cases of students who don't think this matters much, only to find out that they have a very hard time surviving the majors course when they don't need it. We don't want you to be overwhelmed by a course that is really not right for your situation. If you are not sure which course is right for you, please ask your advisor. If you decide that BIO 110 is right for you, you can login to DSU online services and make a change to your schedule.

WEBSITE

I maintain a website for the course. If you would like to check it out in advance, go to:

http://www.doctortee.com/bio100

If you visit the the site before the semester begins, it may not be completely ready for current semester; the information you see there may be from the last time the course was taught. But the course content is basically the same; there won't be many changes except for the schedule.

Again WELCOME! I am looking forward to a great semester.

Biology concepts pre-test -

During the first week's lab session, you will take a pre-test on basic biology concepts. Your score on this pre-test will not be counted toward your grade in the course. We use this test to assess your knowledge of basic biology as you enter the course. The questions are drawn from the Mississippi state biology test that is given in high school, so the questions should be fairly familiar to you. You will take a similar post-test at the end of the semester.

The areas of biology covered include cell structure and function, metabolism, genetics, taxonomy, and ecology. All the topics on the test are topics that we will cover this semester. Of course, we will cover them in more depth than most high school biology classes do.

This pre-test/post-test assessment serves two main purposes: (1) to identify the content areas in which students are weak so that we might concentration on those areas during the semester, and (2) to see how well we have done by the end of the semester by comparing pre- and post-test scores.

Science skills pre-test -

In addition to assessing your knowledge of basic biology, we also want to know about your familiarity with the scientific process. This is the purpose of the Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS). As with the content test, your score on the TIPS pre-test will not be counted toward your grade in the course. Not only does BIO 100 teach you biological concepts, it also teaches you the process and methods used by scientists to study the natural world. This is one of the goals of the laboratory portion of this course. By using a pre-test and post-test TIPS, we can learn how well we are doing teaching you the scientific method.

The TIPS covers such skills as understanding hypotheses, identifying experimental variables, and interpreting qualitative and quantitative data. Don't be concerned if some of these tasks are unfamiliar. You will be learning the scientific process beginning with the first lab exercise and continuing throughout the course.

What is life and what is biology? -

Your first reading assignment is to read Chapter 1. This chapter is an introduction to the science of biology and a discussion of the characteristics of life. As you read this section, you should try to get a feel for what features separate living things from nonliving things. Since biology is the study of life, having some kind of a "definition" of life seems like a good place to start. As we will see, life is both easy and hard to define. We will spend the semester describing in more detail those things that living organisms do. Biology is a very large field! There are so many aspects of life to consider. This chapter also talks about how the science of biology is divided into various fields. Each field is concerned with a particular aspect of life, e.g. anatomy, physiology, ecology, genetics, etc., but all of these overlap. We will introduce these various fields of biology as we progress through the semester.

For now, don't worry about the last section of the chapter on the scientific method. We will cover that a bit later in a lab exercise.

You will want to check out the study guide on this introductory chapter.

Lab: The scientific method -

The first three laboratory exercises (beginning the second week of classes) are involved with understanding and applying the scientific method. All of the information you need to read is contained in the lab manual. If you have your lab manual in time, read the introductory section of the scientific method (Exercise 1) before your lab meets. The textbook also has a short section on the scientific process at the end of Chapter 1. This is worth reading to further your understanding of the scientific method. You will get all the details of the laboratory exercise and the required assignments during your lab meetings. During the third week of the exercise, we will discuss in detail how to do the lab report. Your report is due one week after the third week's lab period.

If you have any questions on what is to be included in the write-up, need help analyzing the data, or have any other questions about this exercise, come see Dr. T. during office hours.

Ecology -

Ecology is a huge topic that we will just introduce in this course. If you are a biology major, you will take a whole course in ecology later. Pay close attention to the specific reading assignments from the ecology chapters. We will only cover bits and pieces of these chapters, so be sure you are reading only the sections you are responsible for. The important concepts to concentrate on are described below.

Chapter 43 introduces the science of ecology and describes the various biomes. You need not worry about all the details of each biome, but you should be familiar with the basic aspects of tundra, taiga, grassland, desert, etc. Spend a little time with the biome maps to get a feeling for where in the world each kind of biome is found.

In Chapter 44, we concentrate on population ecology. Here we are most concerned with how populations grow or decline. You should understand the difference between exponential and logistic growth.

Chapter 45 covers interactions between organisms in communities. This chapter is not assigned reading. It goes into depth that we really don't have time for in this introductory course, but we will cover some simple community concepts in lecture. Be sure you understand the different types of interaction: predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, and competition.

Chapter 46 covers ecosystems in quite a bit of detail. Here we will just focus attention of trophic levels, food webs, and energy flow in ecosystems. We will briefly mention the importance of biogeochemical cycles. Don't worry about the details, but do take a look at the carbon cycle as an example of what these cycles are all about. Be aware that matter does cycle through an ecosystem and this cycling is critical for the community that lives there.

You will want to check out the study guide on ecology.

Lab: Measurement and the metric system -

As part of the scientific method lab exercise, we will review making measurements of quantities such as length, mass, volume, and temperature using the metric system. This is covered in Appendix 1 of the lab manual, beginning on page 78. You should read that section before your lab meeting for week 2 of the scientific method exercise. This appendix is part reference, part activity. We will work through the measurement exercises during the lab period, but you should use it as a reference for the metric system. Because the metric system is used throughout all of science, you must become very familiar with it.

You will want to check out the study guide on measurement to make sure your are up to speed on the metric system and the basic units used in biology.

Taxonomy and systematics -

Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms-understanding the diversity of life. You might remember already reading a brief introduction to taxonomy in Chapter 1. We cover the topic in a bit more detail now. BIO 101 (the second semester of this course) covers the diversity of life in much more detail as it examines the characteristics of all the major groups of organisms. But it is important that we introduce some of the basics principles here.

You won't need to know details of classification below the domain and kingdom levels (BIO 101 covers this), but you should understand how species are named and classified, learn the levels of hierarchical classification, and understand how modern systematics is based on phylogeny, the evolutionary history of a group of organisms.

Chapter 21 covers all this an much more.

The last section of the chapter covers cladistics, a method of creating phylogenetic trees. We will not cover this section (we save it for BIO 101).

While studying this section, you should refer to the study guide on taxonomy.

Lab: Scientific method report -

Now that radish experiment data collection is done, it is time to analyze the results and draw some conclusions. As you do this, you will be creating your lab report. Because this report covers a three-week long activity, it will count a significant number of points toward your lab grade. Keep this in mind as you prepare it. The full instructions for completing your report are described on this page:

Scientific method assignment

Visit that page and follow the instructions carefully.

If you have any questions on what is to be included in the write-up, need help analyzing the data, or need help using the spreadsheet software, come see Dr. T. during office hours.

Taxonomy assignment -

This assignment will give you a chance to check out an interesting biological website called the "Tree of Life" and look into the classification of plants and animals a bit further. The link below leads to the complete instructions for the assignment

Taxonomy assignment instructions...

Basic chemistry -

Chapter 2 introduces basic chemistry. Chemistry is a scary word for many students. Its kind of in the same category as calculus and physics. I often have even biology majors tell me "that they like biology but don't like chemistry." Here's the problem though: all organisms are made of cells and cells are really just bags of molecules. To understand what molecules do, you have to know some chemistry! But don't panic. This chapter of the text assumes that you have had very little chemistry. I will not pretend to teach you detailed chemistry (we will let the chemistry classes do that), but we need to know enough of the basics about atoms and molecules to begin to understand how a cell works. Remember that life follows the same laws of chemistry and physics that nonliving things do. Chapter 2 will gives us the basics of what an atom is and how atoms form bonds to make molecules. The following chapter will continue by defining what organic molecules are, and why they are important to life. You will want to check out the study guide on basic chemistry.

First Exam -

This test will cover all the material presented from the beginning of the term through the taxonomy section. There will be questions dealing with both lecture and laboratory materials.

There are some example exam questions posted on the web that you can look at to see what kinds of questions might be asked. There are also study guides available on the science of biology, ecology, taxonomy, and measurement and metric system. Don't forget that the review sections at the end of each textbook chapter can also be good for testing your knowledge.

Keep in mind that we have covered some of the material a little differently than the text does. Your main focus should be your notes, lecture outlines, and online study guides, but be sure that you have read the appropriate parts of the text. The additional information in the book will complement and enhance your understanding of the material. Pay particular attention to the photographs and diagrams. You can test your understanding of the material pretty thoroughly just by seeing if you can explain the diagrams. Remember anything from text, lecture, and lab is fair game for the exam.

It is VERY IMPORTANT to keep in mind that the exam will test your understanding of the material-just memorizing will not be enough. You must think critically about the material, asking yourself lots of "how" and "why" questions, not just "what" questions.

Organic molecules -

Chapter 3 continues the story of biological chemistry that we started in the previous chapter. Here we define what organic molecules are. Most of the important things that cells do involve organic compounds. This chapter gets into the complexity of how organic molecules are constructed form a skeleton of carbon atoms with different kinds of functional groups attached. Although even the simplest cell contains thousands of different kinds of molecules, most of them fall into four big categories: carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids (which make proteins), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). The first three categories are discussed in this chapter; nucleic acids are covered in more detail later in the course. Our goal will be to learn how to tell these categories of molecules apart and to understand their functions in a cell. You will want to check out the study guide on biological chemistry.

General features of cells -

Chapter 4 deals with the general features of cells, the basic building blocks of living organisms. The chapter starts with a little history on the cell theory - one of the most important principles of modern biology. Most of what we know about cell structure has been learned through the use of microscopes. Different kinds of microscopes are compared in the beginning of the chapter. Then we go on to the basics of cell structure and distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Because all cells belong to one of these two types, it is important to understand how they differ. The bulk of the rest of the chapter describes the various organelles found in eukaryotic cells. Read this section carefully - it contains a lot of information and new terminology. We cover cell structure rather quickly in lecture by looking at micrographs of various cells parts. I will count on you to read the chapter to get the details about what the parts are for. When you finish reading this section, you can check your understanding by reviewing the study guide on cell structure. You can also view the images from the slide show.

Membranes and transport -

Chapter 5 covers the structure of the plasma membrane and its function to regulate transport of compounds into and out of the cell. The first section explains the fluid-mosaic model of the membrane. This concept is important on many levels as much of what happens in a cell involves membrane function. The second section of the chapter discusses membrane transport: diffusion, osmosis, active transport, and endocytosis and exocytosis. Be sure you understand how the structure of the fluid-mosaic membrane is related to its differential permeability. Don't forget lab. If you understood what happened in our osmosis experiments, you should have a pretty good grasp of how things move into and out of cells. When you finish studying this section, you can check your understanding by reviewing the study guide on cell structure and function.

Energy and enzymes -

Chapter 6 introduces metabolism and covers two main concepts: (1) the energy aspects of chemical reactions and the enzymes that control those reactions, and (2) the process of cellular respiration. We first deal with energy and enzymes. We will look into respiration in the next section.

Remember that a cell is a "bag of molecules" and it is the interaction of those molecules that keeps the cell alive and functioning normally. Be sure you pay attention to the differences between endergonic ("uphill") and exergonic ("downhill") reactions. It's also important to have a basic understanding of the two laws of thermodynamics. Related to this is the idea of energy coupling and the importance of ATP. Make sure you understand the ATP/ADP cycle.

This section also covers enzymes-the catalysts of cellular reactions. All of the metabolic behavior of cells is controlled by 1000s of different enzymes. You can't understand any cell physiology without knowing about them. When you finish studying this section, you can check your understanding by reviewing the study guide on cellular energy and enzymes.

Second Exam -

This test will have questions over all the material we have covered since the first exam through energy and enzymes. As usual, there will be questions dealing with both lecture and laboratory materials.

Check out the example exam questions posted on the web that you can look at to see what kinds of questions might be asked. There are also study guides available on basic chemistry, organic molecules, cells and microscopy, and membranes and transport,

Don't forget that the review sections at the end of each textbook chapter can be good for testing your knowledge. Keep in mind that we have covered some of the material a little differently than the text does. Let your notes, lecture outlines, and lab materials be your main guides, but be sure that you have read the appropriate parts of the text. The additional information in the book will complement and enhance your understanding of the material. Pay particular attention to the photographs and diagrams. You can test your understanding of the material pretty thoroughly just by seeing if you can explain the diagrams. Remember, anything from text, lecture, and lab is fair game for the exam.

It is VERY IMPORTANT to keep in mind that the exam will test your understanding of the material-just memorizing will not be enough. You must think critically about the material, asking yourself lots of "how" and "why" questions, not just "what" questions.

Lab: Microscopy -

From the microscope exercise you should be familiar with the parts and basic operation of dissecting and compound microscopes. The lecture exam will include a few questions on this. The study guide on cell structure also includes topics on microscopy.

Respiration -

We continue with the same chapter as the previous section. It discusses the rather complicated details of the reactions of cellular respiration. We cover nearly all of this section, but in less detail than the textbook does. Still, you will need to spend considerable time on this material.

Respiration is a complex process, so it takes some time and careful study to sort out the details. Be sure to concentrate on the overall process first. Don't try to figure out the details until you have the big picture clear in your mind. This section begins with an overview of the whole process of aerobic respiration then dissects it into the details of glycolysis, Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), and electron transport (oxidative phosphorylation). You don't need to know every detail. Concentrate on the inputs and outputs of each pathway and on how they are connected. That is, you should know what goes into and what comes out of each pathway, but don't worry about the complete set of reactions. Be sure to study the structure of the mitochondrion where the Krebs cycle and electron transport take place. Remember that the function of respiration is to make ATP, so you should be asking which aspects of the pathways lead to ATP production. When you finish studying this section, you can check your understanding by reviewing the study guide on cellular respiration.

Lab: Cell structure -

This week's lab exercise focusses on examining various kinds of cells with the microscope. After completing the work in lab, you can review micrographs of the specimens you looked at.

Photosynthesis -

This chapter covers the complexities of the hugely important process of photosynthesis. It can be argued that this is the most important process on the planet (at least as far as living things are concerned). We cover most of this chapter, but (as for respiration) in less detail than the textbook does.

Photosynthesis is a complex process, so it takes some time and careful study to sort out the details. The chapter begins with an overview of the entire process and discusses the connection between photosynthesis and respiration, then discusses the structure of chloroplasts, the organelles where photosynthesis takes place. Next, the properties of light and light-absorbing molecules called pigments are discussed, and the "light reactions" are described. You don't need to worry about remembering all the details here. but make sure you understand how the light reactions provide compounds that will be used by the dark reactions. Next comes a description of the dark reactions.

You don't need to learn all the details of the Calvin cycle, but be sure to understand how the dark reactions are linked to the light reactions. Be sure to read the section on Calvin's research about how he discovered the first products of photosynthesis.

When you finish studying this section, you can check your understanding by reviewing the study guide on photosynthesis.

Pigment assignment -

There is an assignment described on the website called the Zebrina pigment experiment. All the information you need is on that web page. You should do the assignment and submit your write-up to Dr. T. by e-mail. Please put your write-up in the body of the e-mail message rather than attaching a separate file. The deadline for sending in your write-up is shown above. If you have any questions about the assignment, just ask.

DNA structure and replication -

We now shift gears from metabolism to genetics and related topics. The first chapter in this section is all about nucleic acids, particularly DNA, the information-carrying molecules of the cell. We start with a discussion of how a molecule might be able to carry information and which kinds of molecules might be able to do it. We discuss how it was learned, back in the 1940s that DNA and not proteins act as these information molecules (genes). We will have a lot to say about how genes work later. Most of the chapter is about the structure of the DNA molecule and how it is built from a very long chain (actually two chains) of subunits called nucleotides.

Also covered in this chapter is the mechanisms of how DNA copies itself (replication). This section goes into much more detail than we will have time for. Just use it as reference. Concentrate just on the lecture material on replication.

See the DNA study guide to review this section.

Gene expression -

Now that we have covered the structure of DNA and how it replicates, we tackle the question of how a gene acts at the molecule level. As for the last chapter, this one goes into much more detail than we will cover. Just use this chapter as a reference to look up things that may not be completely clear from lecture. Be sure that you understand the basic concept that a gene is the code to make a protein. This requires that you understand the main aspects of DNA, RNA, and ribosomes, and that you know how transcription and translation work. But as long as you can explain how the three types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis, how a ribosome assembles a protein with its amino acids in the correct sequence, and how this sequence depends on the sequence of bases in the gene, you should be OK.

See the gene expression study guide to review this section.

Third Exam -

This test will have questions over all the material we have covered since the second exam through photosynthesis. The topics included are: energy and enzymes, respiration, and photosynthesis. As usual, there will be questions dealing with both lecture and laboratory materials.

Check out the example exam questions posted on the web that you can look at to see what kinds of questions might be asked. There are also study guides available on energy and enzymes, respiration, photosynthesis, and cell structure and microscopy (review for lab materials)

Don't forget that the review sections at the end of each textbook chapter can be good for testing your knowledge.

Keep in mind that we have covered most of this material in less detail than the text does. Let your notes, lecture outlines, and study guides be your main references, but be sure that you have read the appropriate parts of the text. The additional information in the book will complement and enhance your understanding of the material. Pay particular attention to the diagrams on topics like ADP-ATP cycle, enzymes and activation energy, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, light reactions, dark reactions (Calvin cycle), etc. You can test your understanding of the material pretty thoroughly just by seeing if you can explain the diagrams. Remember anything from text, lecture, and lab is fair game for the exam.

It is VERY IMPORTANT to keep in mind that the exam will test your understanding of the material-just memorizing will not be enough. You must think critically about the material, asking yourself lots of "how" and "why" questions, not just "what" questions.

Chromosomes, mitosis -

This chapter covers the structure of chromosomes and their behavior during cell division (mitosis and meiosis). We first talk a little about how DNA and histone proteins interact so that a chromosome can fold repeatedly to become many times shorter that it usually is during interphase. The textbook covers this in a different chapter which we omitted because we are not going into as much detail as the text does

The main focus of this section is the part of the chapter that covers mitosis and cytokinesis. Pay particular attention to learning the phases of the cell cycle. Don’t just memorize the mitotic phases. You need to understand why it works the way it does. Think about what the result would be if mitosis did not work as precisely as it does.

See the chromosomes/mitosis study guide to review this section.

Meiosis -

The remainder of the cell division chapter covers the process of meiosis. Study the diagrams carefully. Its all about the how the behavior of the chromosomes leads to cells with 1/2 the number that were present in the mother cell. Most important here is that the homologous chromosomes pair together during prophase of the first division. During this part of the course there are also lectures on asexual and sexual reproduction and life cycles. You need to know the difference between plant and animal life cycles.

See the meiosis study guide to review this section.

Basic Genetics -

This chapter introduces genetics, the study of heredity. This chapter tells the story of how Gregor Mendel discovered the basic rules of inheritance by breeding pea plants and carefully studying the offspring quantitatively. You should fully understand the laws of segregation and independent assortment that developed out of Mendel’s research.

Practice monohybrid and dihybrid problems until you are confident that you understand how alleles are passed on from parents to offspring.

The genetics study guide has problems for you to practice. There are also problems in the text at the end of this chapter. Most of the exam questions that cover genetics will be problems you will need to know how to solve. Don't underestimate the importance of practicing the genetics problems.

More Genetics -

The second section of the Mendelian genetics chapter covers some additional aspects of genetics that go beyond what Mendel learned. When you have finished this section, you should understand the inheritance mechanisms of sex-linkage, multiple alleles, incomplete dominance, and codominance. We will talk about some human traits, such as blood type, that are example of some of these more advanced genetic patterns. The advanced genetics study guide has more problems for you to practice.

The advanced genetics study guide has problems for you to practice. There are also problems in the text at the end of this chapter. Most of the exam questions that cover genetics will be problems you will need to know how to solve. Don't underestimate the importance of practicing the genetics problems.

Biology concepts post-test -

During the last week's lab session, you will take a post-test on the same basic biology concepts covered by the pre-test you took at the beginning of the semester. Your score on this post-test will be counted in a small way (as extra credit) toward your grade in the course, so it is in your best interest to try your best on the test. The main use of this test is to assess how your knowledge of basic biology has improved over the semester.

As for the pre-test, the areas of biology covered include cell structure and function, metabolism, genetics, taxonomy, and ecology. All the topics on the test are topics that we have covered during this semester.

This pre-test/post-test assessment serves two main purposes: (1) to identify the content areas in which students are weak so that we might concentration on those areas during the semester, and (2) to see how well we have done by the end of the semester by comparing pre- and post-test scores.

Science skills post-test -

In addition to assessing your knowledge of basic biology, we also want to know how well you have come to understand the scientific process. This is the purpose of the Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS). You took a TIPS pre-test at the beginning of the semester. In the last lecture period, you will take the TIPS post-test. Your score on this post-test will be counted in a small way (as extra credit) toward your grade in the course, so it is in your best interest to try your best on the test. Not only does BIO 100 teach you biological concepts, it also teaches you the process and methods used by scientists to study the natural world. This is one of the goals of the laboratory portion of this course. By using a pre-test and post-test TIPS, we can learn how well we are doing teaching you the scientific method.

The TIPS covers such skills as understanding hypotheses, identifying experimental variables, and interpreting qualitative and quantitative data.

Final Exam -

The final exam carries more weight then any other single grade. It will count 150 points-1-1/2 times that of regular exams. It will include questions from all concepts covered throughout the semester, but will focus heavily (about 2/3 of the questions) on material covered since the third exam. You should use most of your study time on the new material. For the older material, just review the major concepts. Questions on older material will be very general. These should actually be the easy questions because they will cover big concepts that should be almost automatic for you at this point.

As usual, there will be questions dealing with both lecture and laboratory materials. Questions from the new material will come from:

Check out the example exam questions posted on the web that you can look at to see what kinds of questions might be asked. There are also study guides available on nucleic acids (DNA), gene expression, chromosomes and mitosis, meiosis, basic genetics., and advanced genetics. BE SURE YOU PRACTICE THE GENETICS PROBLEMS THAT ARE INCLUDED ON THE GENETICS STUDY GUIDES. There will definitely be some genetics problems on the exam.

As usual, don't forget that the review sections at the end of each textbook chapter can be good for testing your knowledge. You should also check out the textbook web site. There you can take practice quizzes on each chapter and view animations that will help you with some of the more complex topics.

Keep in mind that we have covered most of this material in less detail than the text does. Let your notes, lecture outlines, and study guides be your main references, but be sure that you have read the appropriate parts of the text. The additional information in the book will complement and enhance your understanding of the material. Pay particular attention to the diagrams on topics like transcription, translation, chromosome structure, mitosis, and meiosis. You can test your understanding of the material pretty thoroughly just by seeing if you can explain the diagrams.

It is VERY IMPORTANT to keep in mind that the exam will test your understanding of the material-just memorizing will not be enough. You must think critically about the material, asking yourself lots of "how" and "why" questions, not just "what" questions.

Delta State University > Biological Sciences > Dr. Tiftickjian > BIO 100 > Assignments